Posted September 27, 2011

Your Adductors Are Your Friends – No, Seriously

One of the most overlooked and probably despised areas on the human body is the inner thigh, also known as the adductor muscles. Women hate them, recoil in terror at the thought of getting them bigger in any way possible, and tend to stick to using the inner-outer thigh machine with 15 pounds for 600 reps while reading a romance novel. Men ignore them in favour of the more “showy” muscles, like calves and quads. Screw you, adductors!! You do nothing for no one!!! Sure, they may be the forgotten and loneliest muscles of the leg, but they still manage to play a bunch of highly impactful roles, all while being dead sexy.

The adductors are a group of muscles that attach to the inner portion of the thigh and also at the pelvis in different locations. The longus, magnus and brevis attach more on the anterior side of the leg, whereas the gracilis and pectineus attach more on the posterior aspect of the thigh. This is important because not only does the adductor cause adduction (duh) but also assists in hip flexion, extension, and to a degree with rotation. Another biggie is that they are the direct antagonists to muscles like the glute major, tensor fascia latea, and glute medius, which means working one without the other is like working bi’s without tri’s: you just look silly. It also has direct attachments to the medial patellofemoral ligament, which means if it’s stiff and tight or not working properly, your kneecap may not track properly, and may result in some more than unnecessary amounts of “shit this knee is hurting like crazy” to ruin your day. If you think patellofemoral pain is caused by a weak VMO on the inner quad, think again, seeing as how the fibers line up to pull in a direction that can pretty much have no impact on patellar tracking whatsoever.

Here’s a funny bit of info for you. A study performed at St. John’s hospital HERE tested the differences between selectively training the VMO versus just doing general leg strengthening on reduction of patellofemoral pain, and found there was no difference in pain reduction or functional improvements between the groups. Sounds like we need something new to focus on with anterior knee pain, right?

Let’s look at the knee in another way. We know the IT band connects to the fascial network that also wraps around the front of the knee, seeing as how anyone with a tight IT band will say the have pain that radiates across the patellar tendon, not up and down. We know that the common adductor tendon has direct attachments into the patellofemoral ligament, which helps hold the knee cap alligned, and if stretched or weak can result in the knee cap tracking laterally.

The IT band and the adductors are pretty analogous to the tibialis posterior and the peroneals role in stabilizing the ankle against frontal plane forces, so how come no one ever really addresses this sumbitch when it comes to anterior knee pain? NOOooooooo, we always have to focus on the quad, getting preferential activation out of one component of the quad (sort of like “targeting” some part of the bicep, right??), even though the quad pulls up and patellofemoral syndrome is more of a lateral-medial issue, but what the hell, let’s follow the crowd.

Now I know many of you are already saying “But Dean, how come I need to work my adductors when I already know they’re all like, tight and junk? Shouldn’t I just squat and get my diesel on?”

I’ll give you four responses to this question. First, no. Second, not working a muscle doesn’t make it function better. Tres, that’s three in spanish. Fourth, glute work and adductor work should be considered in the same vein as pull work and push work: there should be a ratio of 2 or 3 glute exercises to every one adductor exercise so that the balance between sides of the hip is maintained, and more specifically so that optimal range of motion is maintained.If we look at someone with piss-poor hip stability doing a landing test and their legs go everywhere but where they need them to, we can assume the quad isn’t the real issue here.

Sure, they may need some glute strengthening, just like your lower traps need  strengthening with a kyphotic posture. But if you don’t think about the rest of the equation, you’re missing the forest for the trees. If the adductors are dysfunctionally tight (think upper traps in kyphosis), they will always win the battle over the glutes, and never allow the pelvis to get out of anterior tilt with internal rotation.

Now before everyone gets into a queue near the inner thigh machine or starts doing all sorts of cable leg swings all over the place, let me clear something up. Working the adductors does not necessarily mean concentric based movements through adduction. It can mean creating stability at or near the terminal end range of motion, as well as eccentrically decelerating a movement. Here’s a few examples of these two concepts.

Now on top of getting the adductor to contract and relax, stretching plays just as big of a role, and should be focused on by anyone not involved in gymnastics for at least 50% of their lives (Seriously, those people are freaks).

Spending some concerted time working on adductor function may sound like as much fun as getting your bikini zone shaved with Gary Busey’s teeth, but the results pay off in the end when you’re back-squatting a dump truck and running PR’s without pain.

  • Simon

    Nice post!

    Do you think cossack squats ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cuB056L2Fas ) are a good exercise to strengthen the adductors ?

    • deansomerset

      Cossack squats are great, but a lot of people don’t have the hip mobility to do them properly and wind up rounding their thoracic and lumbar spine to get lower into the movement. It’s similar to a lateral lunge, which I use a fair bit with my clients who don’t have that great of hip mobility. Great question!!

  • Matthew

    Great post Dean! I will be trying these exercises as I have some pretty tight ass adductors.

  • R Smith

    Dean,

    Never thought I’d see the day when I’d learn to love hip mobility drills, but the numerous activation/mobility drills I’ve done in the last year have done wonders for my hip mobility and glute activation, AND now my adductor complex doesn’t feel like an overtightened rope.
    You’ve given us some great info, sir, and I just found a couple of additional mobility drills.

    RS

  • Damien Mooney

    Hi Dean
    The very first vid, the lateral lunge overhead driver, what is the difference in leg position between that and a cossack squat?
    Thanks

    • deansomerset

      Great question! With a Cossack squat, the trailing leg is typically externally rotated to hold the foot in a toe up position at the end of the squat. With this variation the feet are lined up parallel, which places more stress on the adductor group instead of the hamstrings. It’s a subtle change, but I’m glad you picked up on the difference.

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  • Alistair Coulstock

    Hi Dean,
    I was wondering whether you have any experience with ACL reconstructions. I had one on the left knee back in 2001 and was told to build strength back in the quads and hamstring. The recon was one where they take a chunk out of your hamstring tendon to make the new ACL I obviously didn’t address the imbalances caused by the intrusive operation as since then my back goes out regularly. I have since worked out that my left Adductor gets extremely tight, specifically from surfing, which pulls the pelvis forward and twists it on one side which then goes into the back. Last year it got to the point that I ended up herniating the disc between L5 S1 to the point that I lost strength in the right hamstring and calf. I have been focused on trying to get back to full health and fitness with the help of a physio. The first thing the physio has done is to focus on bringing strength back in the right leg, quad work, calf work but also gluts. I thought I was on the right path, not only to fix the damage from the herniated disc but also the existing problem. I have also been concentrating on trying to get the hamstring to the same strength as the right one but all studies I’ve read say you only get back to around 85% of full strength. The glut work has helped no end but only on the rehab from the disc issue.

    I went for a surf on the weekend, first one in over a year. Bam, same tightness through the lower back as before, only starting to release with warm up and adductor stretches and relief 3 days later.

    So the question is could the adductors have been weakened during the op? What would you suggest to try and fix this imbalance?

    Any advice greatfully received after a 12 year journey to find a way to fix this issue.

    Regards Alistair

    • deansomerset

      The surgery could have caused a reflexive restriction through the diaphragm and resulted in your low back getting jacked up. Do you stand with a rib flare (where the bottom of your ribs is ahead of your chest and abs)? If so, that would explain what is going on. Spend some time trying to do some deep crocodile breathing on your back, getting your abs to expand entirely and you should notice a difference.

      • Alistair Coulstock

        Dean, Many thanks for your response. I must admit I have not noticed any rib flare. I typically maintain a fairly active routine and try to exercise 6 days a week, with a mix of gym, running, swim/surf and cycling.

        At moderate pace most activities do not set off the adductor tightness. But surfing always does, as does hill sprints and sometime cycling. I think the surfing sets it off due to the posture sitting on the board between waves. The adductors are activated gripping the board with your legs and the psoas due to the sitting position which is typically leaning further forward than in a chair due to the tilt of the surf board. Add to that the continual balancing act and this combination always affects the adductor.

        General posture is typically relatively good, although there is a rounding of the shoulders from the combination of surfing, swimming, cycling and the good old killer office work. I know this will exacerbate the issue from tight/weak Hip flexors from the cycling and sitting.

        The Graft from the hamstring is typically harvested on the inner side of the tendon. Could it be as simple as strengthening and stretching the Adductor on that side to try to rebalance the pelvis? Many articles talk about Psoas strengthening and stretching to improve or restore balance but nothing really talks about the adductors much.

        After 12 years an no fix I’ll test any methods. I’ll give your crocodile breathing a go and see if that identifies the problem. But any other suggestions would be very welcome.

        Regards Alistair

  • Alistair Coulstock

    Hi Dean,
    I was wondering whether you have any experience with ACL reconstructions. I had one on the left knee back in 2001 and was told to build strength back in the quads and hamstring. The recon was one where they take a chunk out of your hamstring tendon to make the new ACL I obviously didn’t address the imbalances caused by the intrusive operation as since then my back goes out regularly. I have since worked out that my left Adductor gets extremely tight, specifically from surfing, which pulls the pelvis forward and twists it on one side which then goes into the back. Last year it got to the point that I ended up herniating the disc between L5 S1 to the point that I lost strength in the right hamstring and calf. I have been focused on trying to get back to full health and fitness with the help of a physio. The first thing the physio has done is to focus on bringing strength back in the right leg, quad work, calf work but also gluts. I thought I was on the right path, not only to fix the damage from the herniated disc but also the existing problem. I have also been concentrating on trying to get the hamstring to the same strength as the right one but all studies I’ve read say you only get back to around 85% of full strength. The glut work has helped no end but only on the rehab from the disc issue.

    I went for a surf on the weekend, first one in over a year. Bam, same tightness through the lower back as before, only starting to release with warm up and adductor stretches and relief 3 days later.

    So the question is could the adductors have been weakened during the op? What would you suggest to try and fix this imbalance?

    Any advice greatfully received after a 12 year journey to find a way to fix this issue.

    Regards Alistair

    • deansomerset

      The surgery could have caused a reflexive restriction through the diaphragm and resulted in your low back getting jacked up. Do you stand with a rib flare (where the bottom of your ribs is ahead of your chest and abs)? If so, that would explain what is going on. Spend some time trying to do some deep crocodile breathing on your back, getting your abs to expand entirely and you should notice a difference.

      • Alistair Coulstock

        Dean, Many thanks for your response. I must admit I have not noticed any rib flare. I typically maintain a fairly active routine and try to exercise 6 days a week, with a mix of gym, running, swim/surf and cycling.

        At moderate pace most activities do not set off the adductor tightness. But surfing always does, as does hill sprints and sometime cycling. I think the surfing sets it off due to the posture sitting on the board between waves. The adductors are activated gripping the board with your legs and the psoas due to the sitting position which is typically leaning further forward than in a chair due to the tilt of the surf board. Add to that the continual balancing act and this combination always affects the adductor.

        General posture is typically relatively good, although there is a rounding of the shoulders from the combination of surfing, swimming, cycling and the good old killer office work. I know this will exacerbate the issue from tight/weak Hip flexors from the cycling and sitting.

        The Graft from the hamstring is typically harvested on the inner side of the tendon. Could it be as simple as strengthening and stretching the Adductor on that side to try to rebalance the pelvis? Many articles talk about Psoas strengthening and stretching to improve or restore balance but nothing really talks about the adductors much.

        After 12 years an no fix I’ll test any methods. I’ll give your crocodile breathing a go and see if that identifies the problem. But any other suggestions would be very welcome.

        Regards Alistair

  • geoductor

    Dean, Thanks for the video demonstrations of the adductor strengthening and stretching. I was working with my PT last year to rehab and he had me focusing on my adductors with some basic exercises. I need to get back to it again. Do you have any suggestions for more basic exercises for someone trying to get back into shape. By the way, Gary Busey’s teeth – great motivator.

  • geoductor

    Dean, Thanks for the video demonstrations of the adductor strengthening and stretching. I was working with my PT last year to rehab and he had me focusing on my adductors with some basic exercises. I need to get back to it again. Do you have any suggestions for more basic exercises for someone trying to get back into shape. By the way, Gary Busey’s teeth – great motivator.

  • Scottie2Fit

    I’m a recent graduate with my doctor of physical therapy degree. They still did associate patellofemoral pain with VMO, but it seems to be more accepted now that, without e-stim, you can’t isolate the vmo, so training the entire quad is the way to go. Nothing was discussed about the adductors in this regard. Though, I have personally starting considering the adductors in the role of anterior pelvic tilt. Do you happen to have any link to research regarding adductors and patellofemoral pain?

    Thanks for the good read.

    • deansomerset

      Congrats!! I don’t have any specific research on PFP and adductors, but I don’t doubt it exists on pub med somewhere. It’s more of an observational connection through anatomical linkages. I would love to see an outcome study comparing the effects of strengthening VMO versus training knee alignment and adductor reactivity.

  • Brian

    Dean, as one who has been fighting PFPS for about two years, this is the first article that has made a lot of sense to me. The only relief I can get is from a strange urge to stretch my adductor or feel it activate. Glute work and conventional RDLs have done little to truly fix the problem. That said, the only way I can squat without hurting my knee is with my feet facing strongly forward in order to feel the adductor activate, in a wide stance. Does this make sense and do you foresee any potential problems with it? My good knee doesn’t seem to mind either. In addition, would some sort of sumo deadlift or sumo RDL with feet forward be ok to try? That wide stance at body weight really gets me feeling that adductor fire. Thanks in advance.

    • deansomerset

      I’ve worked with a few people who have had urges to either constantly crack a joint or feel a stretch in certain muscles, and in most cases it’s more of a mental than physical thing. By trying to reduce the focus on this it can usually help the symptoms to become less sensitive. For the forward feet wide stance position, it could cause some rotational issues at the knee and potentially lead to some strain on the meniscus, so be careful.

      • Brian

        Understood, and thanks for your reply. I’ll avoid pushing the toes overly forward under load. That said, I definitely struggle with activating that left adductor group in and out of the squat, while the right side doesn’t appear to have a problem. The rare times i do get it firing adequately my knee feels pretty great. Do you have any suggestions as to how I might bring the bad side adductors up to speed?

        • Brian

          I am an idiot. Sorry for my last question.

  • depictureboy

    My daughter has had 2 patella dislocations in the last 3 years on her left knee. I have since started her on a strength training program of the big 4. Would these adductor exercises be beneficial to strengthening/tightening that area to help prevent further occurrence? She is going into her Senior year of HS and I want to help her have a great season of Field Hockey and LAX…

  • Adam Tua

    Hi Dean, Im 6’9 340lbs ive competed in everything from Football to boxing to even the professional wrestling. Ive been experiencing heavy grinding-like sounds in my left knee for about a year now. Ive tried physical therapy and that didnt work, now doctors are saying it could be a torn meniscus, even if that were the case the physical therapy regimen is almost the exact same as what i already did. is there anything you recommend for me to do?

    • deansomerset

      Hi Adam. Without seeing the knee or knowing what kind of meniscal tear it is, I can’t say specifically what you would do differently or not, but I would say try to spend more time training hips and balance than direct knee flexion and extension, and especially try to limit pivoting through the knee versus on the ball of the foot or through the hip. If surgery is required, that’s one consideration that could help, but it depends on the type of tear. Hope this helps.

  • Wellfield Jardin

    I’ve had issues for a while now regarding tracking of the knee cap. I was pain free for a month or so recently. I did the usual things, squats and glute med and vmo work but they didn’t really offer fast results. I then stretched my piriformis with the figure of 4 stretch and this gave me instant relief and I was pain for for a month. The figure of 4 stretch still gives relief but not as well as before. My question is, Why? Also, what does this say about the source of my knee pain? It tracks around 6 mm laterally.

    • deansomerset

      Tough to say without seeing how you move or doing an assessment to see what comes out of it, but it could be that you’re just getting used to the figure 4 stretch and seeing diminishing results from it.

  • medicricci

    Hey Dean, I read this piece some time ago, and my pick-up was limited. Today, while attempting squats, my left VMO/patellar area seriously hurting again–almost disabling ache. Sometimes using an external band to fire up the external hip muscles works well at overcoming this, but not today. I happened to find my left side adductor was super spastic (using a roller-stick), so I rolled the quasi-trigger point out, voila my knee pain went away. I was thrilled! If you get to this and read it, I coincidentally found that my left-leg tibialis anterior was also freakishly tender. I can’t help but wonder if the adductor and tibialis are connected along a spiral line perhaps? Thanks again for your paper and thoughtful information!

    • deansomerset

      They could be. You might also have some flat foot tendencies that are causing a tibial rotation relative to your femur, which makes everything that crosses the knee tender to try to reduce the angle.

  • Lauren woods

    Hi Dean, I’ve had knee pain when I run since I was 21 years old. I’m now 34. I workout a lot (weight lifting and spin classes mainly) but had to give up anything that involves running or jumping a very long time ago.
    I’ve been to at least a dozen chiropractors and physiotherapists, and each seem to get part of the puzzle, but nothing is making very noticeable difference. I have flat feet, arthritis now in the big toe on the left leg (left knee much worse than right), and I’ve been told that my Q angle is 25%.
    One treatment that has helped somewhat is outer hip strengthening, to help keep my knees from falling in. But, it’s only helping slightly.
    (Eeeeeek I’m sorry this message is the longest thing in the universe!!)
    Just tonight, though, I wa remembering, that since I was a young kid, I was more flexible than other girls when it came to forward splits…. But worse than even many of the boys at middle splits!
    I’m wondering if it’s possible to have genetically ‘short’ (or just very tight) inner thigh muscles and if this could be causing, or at least contributing to, my knee pain?
    I should also mention that the knee pain is often on the inner side of my knee, but sometimes the outside. Both my knees have started clicking in the last year or so.
    I’m sorry, again, for this ridiculously long essay ??

    Dreaming of running again, Lauren

    • Doug

      You could look into strengthening the posterior & anterior tibialis; perhaps your flat feet cannot properly decelerate the impacts when you run, and so your knee is taking all the load.

      Another thing that helped me is being super aware about contracting my stabilizer muscles as I run (abs, glutes/erector spinae) and just thinking about running “tight.”

      Lastly, exercises that worked lateral rotation of the femur helped a lot for me. (clams, crab walks with an elastic band, side-lying ANKLE-WEIGHTED leg lifts). For proper queues, these would best have their form taught from a PT.

      I have always had tight and “short” adductors, like you. These three areas, after being diligent for about a half year, eliminated my knee pain completely.

      • Lauren woods

        Thanks for the advice Doug!

  • Yoshio Hasegawa

    Hi Dean!

    I am a college football athlete and I have been having trouble with very tight adductors. I believe I am having trouble strengthening my glutes enough and has also added to my very tight adductors. We do a lot of olympic weightlifting and my quads do most of the work. I believe the glute and aductor stability workouts you posted on this article have helped! I was wondering if there are more workouts for my tight adductors and glutes you know of that I can add to the mix!

    Thank you!
    Yosh

  • Hiren

    Hi Dean,
    I have bent knees, like bow legs. But i think it is due to imbalance between inner and outer leg muscles. can you suggest something for this?

  • Saleha Sajid

    Hi Dean!
    Your article was very helpful. I starting training a year ago (never did it my entire life) and it seems my limiting factors to glute growth are extremely tight adductors. They weren’t tight when I started training, my IT band was. I corrected my posture (atleast to protect my IT band and lower back) and now have tight adductors. They don’t hurt when I train, I don’t have knee pain but they’re most painful when I palpate near my medial knee and groin area (left worse than right). My left glute is flat and doesn’t engage properly no matter what I do. So I tried your lateral lunge overhead driver and it hurts my opposite knee (the one that’s not adducting). I’m sure these exercises are great and I will build up to them but can you suggest some 1st grade level exercises. I am able to stretch my adductors well, but can’t stabilize them at near end range of motion. Please advise! Thank you

  • Marianne Moss Forstner

    Awesome article! I do a LOT of internet research to learn about lifting/exercise and about pain that I may be having (mainly to avoid time and money spent going to docs, PTs, etc. but also because I want to understand my body and because knowledge is power). Thank you for this article. I’m bookmarking it because I know I’ll refer to it more in the future.

  • Clayton Anderson

    I’ve had tight hips since I was a kid. Sitting on a motorcycle or horse would induce cramping pronto. Developed lateral knee pain in my twenties. Told that my IT band was tight and sent packing with a list of Vastus Medialis exercises and IT band roller treatments. That helped a little, but not enough to be satisfied. Finally I tried a Pilates ring to get a decent resistance doing a isometric adductor flex. I feel like this has had the effect of loosening the side glutes and helped with knee pain. Wondering if this sounds like the right path, or if there are other things to try. Should I just stick to isometrics for now or if adding some concentric movements would boost the Sherrington effect I’ve noticed?

    • Without knowing more about you and how you move, I couldn’t venture a guess.

  • Ryan

    Great article Dean! I am a runner that has recently recovered from a pes anserine issue that has left me sidelined for the better part of a year. I’ve been working on hip mobility/stabilization as well as foot and ankle mobility/strength. A couple of weeks ago I added a cossack squat stretch to my routine and immediately felt pain in the pes anserine that was previously injured. It wasn’t sharp pain, but a dull/sticky pain. I stopped the cossack squats and the pain is starting to subside. Could the pain be caused by adhesions and lack of strength in this area? Will these exercises help and if so, what is the recommended sets/reps? Thank you!

  • Lindie Das Neves

    Hi Dean,

    Can you please suggest some regressed versions of these exercises because I’m in really bad shape and can barely keep myself upright at this point.

    This is going to sound insane but I’ve got an anterior tilt on my right side because of what I’m increasingly starting to believe is WEAK adductors. I’ve been in intense debilitating pain for 4 years now and all the physical therapists I’ve seen repeat the same mantra. Stretch hip flexors, activate glutes. I’ve tried every combination of these exercises for months at a time and my piriformis pain, glute pain, psoas pain, ITB pain, lateral quad pain, lower back pain (all on the right) has only gotten worse. My pelvis is so twisted by now I waddle when I try to walk.

    I’m always trying to figure out what’s going on with my body to try get some relief and at least stop getting worse. I recently figured out that I can’t squeeze a ball between my knees without my right TFL, quad and outer hip doing most the work. Huh?! When I sit my right leg flops out and piriformis spasms. My glute medius is so tight that instead of adducting I’m internally rotating my hip to keep my right knee facing forward. Que anterior pelvic tilt. I’ve got a compensated trendlenburg sign on the right. My big toe on right barely connects with the floor because I’m not able to pronate. How HOW has everyone I’ve seen NEVER checked my adductors?

    The left side is basically the exact opposite. Trigger points and tightness in left adductors and overpronation. Probably weak glute medius.

    So I’m now trying to get my right adductors going but it is slow and painful. This dysfunction has gotten so far. If my muscle balance is represented by one of those old fashioned scales it would not so much be leaning to the one side…it would be like the weight falling off the one side (right adductors) and the other side going crashing to the floor.

    Any suggestions would be appreciated.

    Thank you in advance

    Lindie

    • dovuto

      HI Lindie, I would look into Egoscue clinics and/or watch videos that relate to the Egoscue method. They are specialists in body alignment using exercise correction techniques. They’re all about strength through balance. Here’s an example youtube video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lSaTJXJ_Maw

  • Gus Arundel

    lol

  • bill

    lol

  • disqus_f7engCYFee

    Taking time to share this information, so that, people who have been debilitated by these sorts of dysfunctions, is very kind.
    Thanks!!!

  • Patricia Likakis

    Are any of these exercises going to throw out my sacrum? They look like they could.

  • stockzy

    Hi Dean. Great article mate. A quick question for you or anyone else that might be able to help.

    I have very Long and weak adductors as a posed to the more common short and tight adductors. Also I have piss poor internal rotation of the femur, about 7-10% in the seated external rotation test. Does the adductors contribute to internal rotation directly or by strengthening the adductors do you release the external rotators and therefore get more internal rotation?

    Hope that makes sense.

    Brad

    • They do contribute a little bit to internal and external rotation, but only a small amount.

  • Cody Kahl

    It’s OK if you were triggered lol… Crawl back into your safe space and grow some humour

    • Bitty Halpin

      Actually it’s not okay. I have a sense of humour, it just doesn’t include bullying of a specific group of people. That’s actually called discrimination. And, you know, just plain rudeness. Merry Christmas.

  • Karly Almon

    Damnit I love reading your articles, Dean!

  • evolutionyst

    Took me a couple reads to glean the pertinent info from this post, but thanks for the excellent tips. Looking forward to relieving some of the knee pain I experience after long trail days. Will be bookmarking this site. Great work.

  • Joaquin Diaz

    ahhahaha whaaat? troll or just dumb??

    • Bitty Halpin

      Actually I think I expressed my thoughts and feelings quite succinctly. Since my comment the article has been edited to remove any hurtful remarks. But thanks for your concern in the matter, sir.

  • Richard Kopcho

    Great article! I just figured this out by accident recently, and then googled the role of posterior adductors in knee stabilization to see if anyone has talked about this. I came up with your website. I’ve had therapists and doctors for years telling me to strengthen my VMO, but no one could explain how. One point worth making: you really do need to stretch out those adductors, otherwise the hip socket stays very “closed” and it is impossible/difficult to engage the medial muscles: otherwise, in my experience, you just keep your weight braced on the outer part of the leg and use the i t band and lateralis to do all the work. Thanks for this article!